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This collaborative learning strategy has three stages.

  1. The students should be given a question, concept, or problem and then encouraged to think about it alone for a (short) designated time period.
  2. Then, they pair with another student and discuss what they found individually for an additional time period.
  3. Lastly, the pairs join the large group and discuss(share) their conclusions as a whole.

This strategy was first proposed by Frank Lyman of the University of Maryland in 1981 (according to wikipedia, see


  • Santa C.M., Havens, L.T. & Valdes B.J., (2004). Project Criss - Creating Independence through Student-owned Strategies. Helping teachers teach and learners learn. Third Edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa)